Saturday, January 20, 2018

Reading Through Theology of the OT: by Walter Brueggemann #10

BrueggemannThis post continues my reading through Theology of the Old Testament: Testimony, Dispute, Advocacy, by Walter Brueggemann. Chapters 13-14 move into the 3rd part of the book, which discusses the character of YHWH from the subjective perspective of His partners in relationship. I have been posting quotes from the book on my Facebook page on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday (NT is Mon-Wed-Fri) and we can discuss comments and questions about the passage there. As usual my comments are in black and quotes from the theology are in blue below. I am using the Logos version of the book.…

Chapter 13 is entitled Israel's Unsolicited Testimony. Previously Brueggemann has looked at Israel's testimony of how God's acts upon them, but here God's partners, mainly Israel function as the subjects acting upon God. This immediately creates tension because God sovereignly acts, as witnessed in the core testimony with its active verbs, to create and maintain the relationships and yet is affected and changed by the relationships. God responds to Israel with love, passion, regret, anger etc. Brueggemann frames this dichotomy by saying that God is committed to the partner relationship "in freedom and passion." That is, God is in complete control of the relationship and yet He commits Himself, with strong feeling, to stay engaged in the partner relationship. I think this is a very important observation about how God is presented in the OT. How can an "omni" Being be in relationship with beings He created? Words are inadequate. I like to say that God "lowers Himself into relationship with us so that He truly experiences relationship, with all of its joys and pains, while still remaining sovereign." The incarnation, in which the 2nd person of the Trinity "empties Himself," would be the supreme expression of this. That God does this is clear in scripture. How God does this is beyond human understanding.

Yahweh’s person and character are indeed fully available in the relationship, that nothing about Yahweh is held back or kept immune from this relationship. This does not mean that in this fully available relationship, where Yahweh is accessible for being impacted, Yahweh is “like any other.” Indeed not. And so the Old Testament continues to ponder and puzzle over the character of Yahweh, who is fully available to Yahweh’s partners, but in such ways that it is always the Yahweh of the transformative verbs who is available. 410

Yahweh is committed to the partner in freedom. This assertion means that Yahweh’s connection to the partner is undertaken as sovereign, unfettered choice on Yahweh’s part. Yahweh makes a commitment of care, fidelity, and obligation to the partner that Yahweh did not need to make. In the end, Israel can give no reason for this act of Yahweh’s freedom. It is simply a given that is available in Israel’s discernment of its life in the world. In freedom, Yahweh surely retains sovereignty over the relationship, evidenced in the continuing control of the decisive verbs. 410

Yahweh is committed to the partner in passion...It refers, first of all, to powerful and strong feeling. Yahweh does commit to the partner with powerful and strong feelings of concern, care, and affection...And so it is, on occasion, that Yahweh surprisingly does not exercise sovereign freedom to terminate a dysfunctional relationship, even when Yahweh clearly has the right to do so. Yahweh, on occasion, stays with the partner, seemingly because Yahweh is so engaged in the relationship that Yahweh is unable or unwilling to terminate it. 411

In chapter 14, Israel as Yahweh's Partner, Brueggemann discusses the testimony of Israel regarding their origins and covenant with YHWH. Israel's origin is entirely due to God's sovereign choice of the nation. Because God "loved," "chose" and "set His heart" upon them, Israel became His special nation with a special mission. God placed them in covenant relationship with Him, which obligated Israel to "hear" His commands and do justice and righteousness in God's world, and to "see" Him in worship, which drew Israel into a personal relationship with YHWH and obligated them to holiness. Israel was to love God and "be a light to the nations" by living as a just community and worshiping God in beauty and holiness.

From the outset there is something odd, enigmatic, and inexplicable about Israel’s origin and continued existence...It is important to remember that as Israel pondered and spoke about its existence, it offered no explanation for its existence. What appear to be explanations are in fact articulations of wonder, awe, astonishment, and gratitude, all addressed back to Yahweh. 414

Israel is to “listen” to the command of Yahweh and to respond in obedience...we may say in sum that Israel’s obligation is to do justice. Israel is a community put in the world, so the testimony suggests, for the sake of justice...Israel understands itself, in its unsolicited witness, as a community of persons bound in membership to each other, so that each person-as-member is to be treated well enough to be sustained as a full member of the community. 421–422

The obedience of Israel as Yahweh’s partner concerns the demanding practice of neighborliness and the rigorous discipline of presence with God...the Israelite with integrity is the one who fully practices neighborliness and who lives with passion the disciplines of holiness. 429

The last part of the chapter deals with Israel's experience with God as they respond to Him with faithlessness (exile) and with repentance (forgiveness and regathering). The faith of Israel that Christ fulfilled and the church inherits comes largely out of the exile. The majority of the nation had rejected God and failed to obey covenant, so they experienced His rejection, divorce and abandonment. In exile, many in the nation turn to God with repentance, grief for sin and their present situation, practice of Torah, trust in God's presence, and trust in His promises for regathering. God responds with the destruction of the Babylonian empire and the approval, by the Persians, for Israel to return to Jerusalem, rebuild the temple and resume the OT religious system. The reforms of Ezra and Nehemiah begin the process of solidifying the content of the OT canon and creating the Jewish community into which Christ would be born. This brought about the "fullness of time" to prepare Israel for the promised full restoration that Christ would bring, that would be experienced as the church was birthed at Pentecost and in subsequent church history, and is still awaited to be completed at His return.  

Repentance in itself is an act of hope. A return to Yahweh, and to land and to well-being, is possible. Any such return, however, will be on the terms of the sovereign God who waits to be merciful (Deut 4:31). The repentance entails the very issues that were the causes of Israel’s condemnation: remembrance, holiness, and justice.  436

While Israel’s judgment is a function of Yahweh’s sovereignty, Israel’s grief and protest are a complement to Yahweh’s faithfulness and pathos. The grief and protest permit Yahweh to move beyond sovereign anger and rage to rehabilitation and restoration. It is evident, moreover, in the ongoing life of the exile of Israel, that grief as candor and protest as hopeful insistence are effective. For Yahweh is indeed moved toward Israel in new, caring ways. 437–438

Obedience gives sharpness and urgency to Israel’s existence. But it is the promises of Yahweh, in which Israel hopes, which keep this community from turning in on itself, either in despair or in self-congratulation. Israel as a holy people refuses to give up on the commandments of Yahweh as the anchor of its significance in the world. Israel as a holy people refuses to doubt the promises, which assert that the future is dependent on nothing in this world, not even on Israel’s obedience, but only on Yahweh’s good intention, which is more reliable than the world itself. 447

Thursday, January 18, 2018

Another Brief Medical Update

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Yesterday we headed down to Stanford for some more blood tests and a follow-up visit with our bone marrow transplant doctor and his staff. We were blessed that Mark and Christine Freeman volunteered to drive us there and back this time. We were thankful because, after the week Joyce had with the pain of a lupus flare-up, it relieved her of a lot of stress of driving in the Bay Area. We were also blessed by less traffic than normal. We made the trip down in about 2 hours and 10 minutes and the trip back in 3 hours and 45 minutes. I think both are record times for us. We also had some nice fellowship and conversation all the way up and back that made the trip seem much shorter. Thank you Mark and Christine.

The doctor visit went well too. My blood numbers were even better than expected and the doctor was very encouraged by how I was recovering from the transplant process. He wants me to go ahead and get the PET scan in late February or early March. We are hoping to schedule it for March 2nd when we will be there for a consultation for my edema. We were urged to still be careful about infection (I will be taking anti-virals and antibiotics for the rest of this year until I can get revaccinated) but I am pretty much free to go out and be with people. The doctor reminded me that the recovery process from chemo lasts at least a year and to expect a few setbacks on the way. But, he also urged me to exercise and begin the work of rebuilding muscle and getting healthier. We were excited and happy about the visit and are very hopeful for more good news in March. Thank you for your prayers for the trip and for your ongoing prayers for the edema treatment. God Bless!

Saturday, January 13, 2018

Reading Through the Gospel of Luke #5 (9:51-11:54)

Bock LukeThis post continues my reading through the Gospel of Luke accompanied by Luke, The IVP New Testament Commentary Series, by Darrell L. Bock. Luke 9.51 begins the next major section of Luke (9.51-19.44). Jesus "sets his face to go to Jerusalem" to face rejection and death and accomplish his saving kingdom mission. This section highlights the growing rejection of Jesus and Jesus' teaching of His disciples to prepare them for the next step of God's kingdom plan. I am posting from my reading in the New Testament accompanied by various commentaries on Monday, Wednesday and Friday and welcome comments and discussion on my Facebook page. I am using the Logos version of the book. As usual my comments are in black and quotes from the book are in blue. Again, I am not sure why the page numbers in the IVP series do not come up in Logos, but I will reference the quotes with the corresponding scripture reference.

Luke 9.51-10.24 introduces this next major section by showing the widespread rejection of Jesus as he is rejected even in Samaria (9.51-56), explaining the main demand of discipleship: absolute devotion to Jesus and His mission, and describing the sending out of a group of 72 to announce the kingdom with the delegated authority of Jesus. The Samaritan rejection illustrates the calling of disciples to announce the kingdom and benefits of Jesus. It is not yet a time of judgment, but opportunity. If rejected they are to move on. Judgment will come from God later. 9.56-62 shows the high demand of a disciple of Jesus. Being part of Jesus' kingdom mission is a higher priority than personal comfort or well-being, family, or any other responsibility one may have. Finally the 72 are sent out with Jesus' message and authority to announce His kingdom benefits. They are to bring both good news and healing. In doing so, they defeat the forces of evil. Their audience will be judged by God based on how their message is received.

Knowing God is a blessing and life’s highest priority. But that blessing is not automatic for every individual; it must be consciously entered into by embracing the hope the disciples offer. This period is so special that kings and prophets have longed to share in the blessings that the disciples get to experience through Jesus. To minister with power is exciting, but to know God and his grace is even better. Luke 9:51-10.24

Disciples cannot back off from the task. Discipleship is not a second job, a moonlighting task, an ice-cream social or a hobby. It is the product of God’s calling and should be pursued with appropriate seriousness. Luke 9:57-62

Proclamation and healing form a verbal, pictorial union of word and deed that evidence the truth of the disciples’ message. Such a mixture of word and deed is also a powerful testimony today, even when the deed is an act of compassion rather than a miracle. When we proclaim God’s love and show God’s compassion concretely, the word takes on a dimension it otherwise might lack. Luke 10:1-24

The next section (10.25-11.13) contains Jesus' basic teaching about relationships for disciples. Following Him is all about relationship with God through Jesus and loving the people who God brings into our lives, made in God's image, by meeting their needs. All the commands of the Bible can be summed up in "love God" and "love your neighbor." The rest of the Bible tells us what we need to know to do that. Relationships demand more than just keeping rules. The lawyer, who knows scripture well, is not willing to love the "Samaritans" in his life which betrays the fact that he does not really love God either. The Mary and Martha account also shows Jesus receiving women as disciples (not done in Jesus' culture) and highlights Mary's correct choice of prioritizing relationship. Finally, the "communal prayer" that Jesus gives to the disciples shows that the key issue is recognizing and deepening that relationship with God and each other. Disciples can boldly approach God with their basic needs and for power to live out the kingdom in this world. We can be real with God and with each other because God has placed us in this relationship.

When Jesus says, “Do this and you will live,” he is saying that relationship to God is what gives life. The chief end of humankind is to love God wholly. We were designed to love; but to love well, we must love the right person. Here is the definition of life that brings life. And the product of our love for God will be a regard for others made in his image, those whom God has placed next to us as neighbors. Luke 10:25-42

The prayer does not use an individualized checklist of specific wants and needs as we often hear at prayer meetings. The prayer is focused like a laser beam on expressing a dependent approach to God, on the quality of the community’s life with him. It expresses a desire for holiness, for God’s ruling presence, for a life of forgiveness, and it recognizes that provision and spiritual protection come from God. It asks God to work on the heart and seeks to be submissive to his will. Luke 11:1-13

The next section is about the purpose of Jesus' miracles and warnings about the need for proper response. Jesus' opponents do not deny His miracles, but attribute them to Satan. They are looking for an excuse not to follow Him. Jesus responds that the miracles show that He is the Messiah bringing God's kingdom to them and they will be held accountable for their response. Jesus' teachings and miracles are enough evidence that God and His kingdom are in their midst and the time is urgent for them to make a choice about what will be the center and foundation of their lives. The section closes with Jesus pronouncing condemnation on the practice of the Jewish leadership. In their pursuit of "holiness" they emphasized human rules and outward focused religion rather than love for God and meeting the needs of their fellow humans. Thus, when God appeared in their midst, they missed it, and opposed and killed the very person they claimed to serve. Unless we humbly take care to keep our hearts right before God we can make the same mistake.

Here is the ultimate cosmic war. Jesus and Satan stand toe to toe in battle. The miracles are an audiovisual that Satan’s cause is ultimately lost. He can do great damage, as any enemy can; but the die is cast. He will lose. The picture of the “stronger one” alludes back to 3:15–16. The stronger one is the promised Messiah who brings fire and the Spirit. The dividing of the spoil recalls the imagery of Isaiah 53:12 (see also Is 49:25–26). Jesus’ work means that Satan is no longer in control of the palace. Luke 11:14-23

We want to avoid offending others in a culture that is diverse. But neutrality is not always a good thing, and neither is polite disengagement. Some issues are important enough to require our considered choices. That is Jesus’ premise in this passage...Jesus calls us to consider what directs our lives. Luke 11:24-36

Luke is showing not only how the opposition grew but also how they failed to heed Jesus’ earlier call to repent (11:29–32). Luke also reveals what piety does not look like. The way to God is not that of the Jewish leadership. The way to God is not in a piety of pride and rules without care and compassion. The God-lover should not point the finger but lend a helping hand. Luke 11:37-54

Friday, January 12, 2018

Reading Through Theology of the OT: by Walter Brueggemann #9

BrueggemannThis post continues my reading through Theology of the Old Testament: Testimony, Dispute, Advocacy, by Walter Brueggemann. Chapters 10-12 conclude the second section of the Theology which highlight the tension between the core testimony of the OT which focus on God’s dynamic actions in creation and what Israel often experienced in its history: God’s hiddenness, ambiguity and inscrutability. I have been posting quotes from the book on my Facebook page on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday (NT is Mon-Wed-Fri) and we can discuss comments and questions about the passage there. As usual my comments are in black and quotes from the theology are in blue below. I am using the Logos version of the book.…

Chapter 10, Ambiguity and the Character of Yahweh, deals with the very difficult texts in the OT which seem to portray YHWH as being deceptive, contradictory, arbitrary, or even abusive in His dealings with His people. Often, these difficulties come from parts of the story that are peripheral to the main point and are often ignored in OT theologies. Some can be explained as human overstatement, misperception of God's motive in Israel's experience such as lack of understanding of God's purpose for suffering, as in Jeremiah's complaints (Jeremiah 20.7-18). God's seeming unfairness (his willingness to forgive David, but not Saul for example) could be explained by God's perfect insight into the human heart. Passages which show God as being willing to deceive (1 Kings 22.20-22) or changing His mind about previous laws (Jeremiah 3.1-23) are more difficult to reconcile with the core testimony of the OT. I think part of the solution is that God is committed to real relationship with flawed humans and accomplishing His purposes in creation through human agency. This throws some ambiguity into the mix when God chooses relationship over law and works His plan through flawed creatures. We need to leave the tensions in the text and recognize that God operates on a plane far above us and has a perspective far wider than ours. In the Word he speaks to us in ways we can understand, but our understanding limits our perception of the revelation. As Calvin said, He speaks to us in "baby talk." 

Yahweh knows well ahead what is to happen. Thus the tale (of David's anointing) is an exemplar of Yahweh’s hidden, inscrutable, majestic purpose for the historical process of Israel, which is well beyond human discernment, even that of Samuel. What interests us is that this sweeping, lordly intention is juxtaposed to a rather seamy strategy for securing the new king. 368

Yahweh’s will is not mushy and romantic. But it is a powerful resolve that Israel should return, in direct challenge to the old command of Moses. It is clear that the old command, to which Yahweh has just subscribed, and Yahweh’s present yearning for fickle Israel are in profound tension with each other. It is equally clear that Yahweh is willing to overthrow and contradict the old command of Moses, Yahweh’s own command, for the sake of the relationship. Yahweh, as it turns out, cares more passionately for the relationship than for the old command. Deuteronomy 24.1-4, Jeremiah 3.1-23, 366

Whatever else this particular narrative (David and Saul) may intend, it shows unmistakably that Yahweh is nobody’s hostage, not even David’s. Perhaps the deception in the anointing, the acceptance of Samuel’s listening to the people (and not Saul’s), the acceptance of David’s act of despoiling of the Amalekites (and not Saul’s), the readiness to forgive David (and not Saul), are all evidences in Israel’s countertestimony that Yahweh will make provisional alliances in the historical process; thus Yahweh may cohere for a time with historical persons, movements, or power arrangements, but only for a time. 372

Chapter 11, Yahweh and Negativity, addresses the Old Testament passages that seem to portray YHWH negatively. These would especially include the books of Job and Ecclesiastes and the "complaint Psalms." These witnesses seem to accuse God of not keeping covenant, being inattentive to the needs of His covenant people, punishing too harshly or violently or even not keeping His own standards of justice and righteousness. It must be noted here that, in these passages, God's faithfulness, justice and power are always acknowledged in the end with a corresponding required response of obedience and worship. How does one justify this seeming contradiction? First, as in Job and Ecclesiastes, the writers conclusion that the God of creation is so far beyond us we will never fully understand what He does or why He does it, forces us to trust Him (based on His known acts of love and righteousness) and believe that He will work things out. Second, we must understand that the OT is not speculative or philosophical in its witness about God. It is written in the emotional, passionate fires of relationship. The human writers vent their frustrations in prayer when their experience does not match God's promises and God accepts and responds favorably. These prayer "complaints" are actually statements of real faith despite an experience that seems to contradict it. 

Whereas the prophets hold to the sanctions and consequent indictments in asserting that Israel has betrayed the covenant, the complaint psalms hold to the sanctions accusing Yahweh of not having honored the covenant. For if Yahweh had honored covenant, it is argued, bad things would not have happened to Israel. 375

Yahweh’s rightful place is not in the speculations of heaven, but in the realities of the earth. Yahweh is not a member of a mythical cast, but a partner to the bold and the obedient in the earth. Yahweh’s continuing engagement is with Job, who is Yahweh’s partner in abrasive candor, and who turns out to be Yahweh’s proper counterpoint. Job does not yet know why the wicked prosper, and he no longer cares. Yahweh does not yet know if Job serves Yahweh for naught, but Yahweh knows enough. Yahweh is no easy, gentle partner, but then neither is Job.  393

Israel’s way is to voice all of its enraged candor, but always to bear in mind the One who must be addressed, and then obeyed. 397

Chapter 12, Maintaining the Tension, closes the discussion of Israel's "counter-testimony" about God. Brueggemann is concerned that the reader maintain the tension between the "core testimony" in the Old Testament about God's "faithful sovereignty and Yahweh’s sovereign fidelity," and its witness to "Yahweh’s hiddenness, ambiguity, and negativity" in their experience. It is as though Israel lived between the great actions of God in the past and His promises for the future. Though the New Testament Gospel, the crucifixion, resurrection and ascension of Christ resolved some of this tension, we as Christians still live between the "already" kingdom life which calls us to take up our cross daily and the "not yet" when we will rule with Christ in a renewed creation. We experience that hiddenness, ambiguity and negativity like the psalmists and should passionately, honestly and openly cry out to God and "complain," even as we trust Him to "make all things work together for good" in the end.

The lived reality of the world, with its barbarism and alienation, indicates unambiguously that Easter has not singularly settled all. Thus in its eucharistic confession when the church, rooted in Israel’s testimony, must “proclaim the mystery of faith,” it not only asserts: “Christ has died, Christ has risen.” It must also add: “Christ will come again.” It ends with an acknowledgment of waiting, albeit full of belief; confident waiting, but nonetheless waiting. 401

This waiting where the Old Testament ends is not, as some supersessionist Christian interpretation suggests, because Old Testament faith is flawed, inadequate, or incomplete. The waiting is inescapable because of the unresolved condition of life in the world, an unresolve shared by Christians with Jews and with all others. The unresolve is as profound in the New Testament as in the Old. The Old ends with the waiting of Elijah “before the great and terrible day of the Lord comes” (Mal 4:5). The New ends with a prayer, “Come, Lord Jesus!” (Rev 22:20). 402–403

I Don’t Like to Wait

Many of you know that, for the last few months, our daughter Melissa and grand-daughter Leila have been living with us. It has been a long time since we had a 5 year old (correction 5 3/4 year old) with us for an extended period of time and I had forgotten how differently a small child sees the world. Perception of time for a child is very different than for an adult. When Leila asks “when will my mom get home from class?” and we answer “in about 30 minutes,” her response is always, “that’s a long time!” A 5 minute wait for a snack can be an excruciating trial of patience.

Having said that I find that I am not all that different. At age 61 (correction 61 11/12) I have a little longer perspective on time, but I dislike waiting just as much as she does. This is really not so good because waiting is an every day part of life in this world. I wait for my doctor appointments, on hold to pay my bills on the phone, and for the 49ers to win another Super Bowl. I have been waiting 22 years on that last one. The big wait for me now is the wait for my PET scan, in a month or two, that will let me know if the bone marrow transplant got all the cancer. It appears so, but the doctor will not commit until that test. In fact, the doctor will wait until I am cancer free for a year before the official pronouncement. “That’s a long time!”

This waiting plays with my mind. The doctor told me to watch for any symptoms that might return so that they could get me back in earlier if necessary. I am not sure that was a good thing for me, because the temptation is to worry about each back twinge and pain in the abdomen and say “here we go again.” This has led to a few nights where it is hard to get to sleep. I have prayed my Psalm 31.5 prayer about a 1000 times since the transplant. I know that a positive attitude promotes healing, but it is still hard to stay away from the dark paths that sometimes open up in my mind.  I am so thankful for people that are praying for me and for Joyce. This helps a lot. I have confidence in God’s promises and in His love for me, but there are times when it is tough to stay positive.

Sometimes I feel like this…

    Deliver me, O God, for the water has reached my neck. I sink into the deep mire where there is no solid ground;
     I am in deep water, and the current overpowers me. I am exhausted from shouting for help; my throat is sore;
     my eyes grow tired of looking for my God. The NET Bible First Edition Ps 69:1–3

Even though I know it ends like this…

    For the LORD listens to the needy; he does not despise his captive people. Let the heavens and the earth praise him, along with the seas and everything that swims in them! For God will deliver Zion and rebuild the cities of Judah, and his people will again live in them and possess Zion. The descendants of his servants will inherit it,
and those who are loyal to him will live in it. NET Bible, Ps 69:33–36

But waiting is an integral part of living in this age between the 1st coming of Christ when the forces of sin and death were defeated, and the second coming when that victory will be fully realized and experienced. While we experience the kingdom through the Holy Spirit today (and we need to trust God more for that – I believe God heals and trust Him to heal me) we wait for the full release from the corruption sin has caused in this world. As one writer put it “ours is a long day’s journey of the Saturday.” (George Steiner, quoted in Brueggemann’s OT Theology)  In some ways we live between the cross on Friday and glory of the Sunday resurrection. We suffer as we take up our cross daily and we look forward to the full release from suffering, aloneness, and brokenness. What do we do in the meantime? We wait!

Monday, January 08, 2018

Reading Through Theology of the OT: by Walter Brueggemann #8

BrueggemannThis post continues my reading through Theology of the Old Testament: Testimony, Dispute, Advocacy, by Walter Brueggemann. Chapters 8-9 begin the second section of the Theology which deals with Israel's "counter-testimony" or "cross examination" of the its core testimony about God discussed in the first section. That is, Israel's core testimony is that God is sovereign and faithful to His loving covenant and yet the Old Testament is brutally honest that many times Israel's experience seems to contradict this. I have been posting quotes from the book on my Facebook page on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday (NT is Mon-Wed-Fri) and we can discuss comments and questions about the passage there. As usual my comments are in black and quotes from the theology are in blue below. I am using the Logos version of the book.…

Chapter 8, Cross-Examining Israel’s Core Testimony, introduces this second section of the Theology which deals with Israel's "counter-testimony" or "cross examination" of the its core testimony about God. Events, such as the exile and destruction of the temple, make it seem like God does not act in love or according to covenant or perhaps does not have things under control. Sometimes God seems hidden or absent, His promises seems ambiguous or God is even acting in a negative way toward His commitment to Israel. The text itself questions God asking, "How long?" "Why?" "Is God's arm shortened (unable to save)?" or "Has He abandoned us?" The writers of the OT struggle with these very real faith issues. This is not a rejection of faith, but an acknowledgement that the plan of God is still incomplete and we look to the future with faith, not objective certainty. We must be careful to not think our view of God is absolute and eliminate this countertestimony from our meditations upon God and His word, because in doing so we create an idol that is less than Yahweh, the Holy Trinity. The Bible reveals the truth about God that we need to know, but God is more than the Bible. 

A reader of the Old Testament, I suggest, must accept cross-examination as a crucial part of the way in which Israel makes its presentation of disputatious testimony concerning Yahweh. It does not know any other way to speak. As a result, it is evident that Israel’s countertestimony is not an act of unfaith. It is rather a characteristic way in which faith is practiced. 318

The questions arise when Israel faces situations of desperate need, as in the case of unbearable injustice...These questions arise not in an act of unfaith, but out of deep confidence that the God of the core testimony, when active in power and fidelity, can prevent and overcome such intolerable life experiences. The questions arise with such urgency because Israel finds that life without the active force of Yahweh is not good. 321

Christian faith is centered on Good Friday and on the crucifixion, in which we speak of “the Crucified God.” Friday is of course linked to Sunday, and death is tailed by the eruption of new life. But the scar tissue of Friday lingers in the body of Christ, and it protests against every totalizing, triumphalist, and absolutizing ambition. 332

Chapter 9, The Hiddenness of Yahweh, focuses on the "counter-testimony" about God's governance, mainly in wisdom literature, that God does not always act dramatically and openly in Israel's experience, but often is working behind the scenes, invisibly to bring about His good plan for the nation and for the world. In fact, the entire creation is permeated by God's wisdom and guarantees an order which provides for the needs of all creation, an "ethical dimension" which rewards behavior which recognizes the boundaries God has placed in creation and an "aesthetic dimension" of beauty to which we should respond with wonder and praise. But God has not just created a good system and then left it to itself. He continues to be an active agent, planning, providing and working with people and the rest of creation (the natural and supernatural) to bring about His ultimate plan.

Yahweh is the hidden guarantor of an order that makes life in the world possible. The operational word is order, and Israel marvels at, ponders, sings about, and counts on that good order without which life would not be possible. 336

Proverbs 8 already wants to say, under the aegis of wisdom, that the whole of creation is shot through with the rationality and intentionality of Yahweh, a rationality and intentionality that need not be visible and intrusive because they are inherent in the very character and structure and fabric of creation itself. It is this intrinsic quality of intentionality that God has embedded in the working of creation to which John 1:1–18 bears witness, and to which the church testifies in Jesus of Nazareth. 345

Yahweh in indirectness and invisibility is no less decisive. Indeed, in its countertestimony, Israel used the occasion of Yahweh’s hiddenness to magnify its claims for the generous, creative, and faithful governance of Yahweh. Yahweh is, in the face of hard evidence, said to be a practitioner and guarantor of joyous, life-giving coherence, the cause of all good and evil, the one with durable intentions for well-being in Israel. 357

Reading Through the Gospel of Luke #4 (Chapters 8-9)

Bock LukeThis post continues my reading through the Gospel of Luke accompanied by Luke, The IVP New Testament Commentary Series, by Darrell L. Bock. Chapters 8-9 close this major section of Luke by summarizing the message of the kingdom, the word of Jesus, that God has visited His people in the person of Jesus and the proper response is to acknowledge who He is and hear and obey His words as the word of God. I am posting from my reading in the New Testament accompanied by various commentaries on Monday, Wednesday and Friday and welcome comments and discussion on my Facebook page. I am using the Logos version of the book. As usual my comments are in black and quotes from the book are in blue. Again, I am not sure why the page numbers in the IVP series do not come up in Logos, but I will reference the quotes with the corresponding scripture reference.

The section continues with the parable of the sower, or four soils, which shows that the only proper response to Jesus' word is to hear it, reflect on it and live a lifestyle of obedience to it. His word is also a light that one must use to go the right way. Those that respond to it are in a relationship with God that is closer than a physical bond. Jesus then does 4 miracles that demonstrate who He is to claim this authority. He has authority over the wind and chaotic sea as YHWH is pictured in the OT. He has authority over the forces of evil and can reverse evil's effects in people. Finally, He has authority over disease and death. The proper response is faith and trust that Jesus can take care of us and handle the most deep and troubling obstacles we face in life.

This parable is not about a response to the word at any given moment. It sums up the different ways the word is received over a lifetime of exposure. It takes time to fall away from an initial attraction to the word. Only over time do the pleasures of life erode the seed’s effectiveness. The parable calls for reflection. We need to cling to the word in patient faith. If we desire to be fruitful, especially given that the obstacles to fruitfulness are so varied, then we must hold fast to God and his message of hope. We focus either on God’s promise or on our circumstances. Which we choose makes a difference: one leads to fruitfulness, the other to barrenness. Luke 8:4-21

Authority for Jesus is not a matter of a raw exercise of power; rather, it is a natural resource that is put to positive use as he shows compassion to those with all kinds of needs...The miracles all raise one question. That question cannot be any more clearly stated than it is at the end of this first miracle where Jesus calms the storm: “Who is this? He commands even the winds and the water, and they obey him.” Luke 8:22-25

Jesus possesses authority so great that he can reverse the effects of evil. Some are transformed by that power—turned from a path of uncleanliness, destruction and death to life and testimony. But others fear it and want God’s presence to be distant from them. They fear what involvement with God’s power might entail. Luke 8:26-39

Jesus has taught a major lesson: faith means understanding that Jesus has the power to deliver life and that his timing and sovereignty can be respected. All Jairus’s earlier pain and frustration have been transformed into a new perspective that weds faith with Jesus’ authority. In fact, this is the lesson of all four miracles of Luke 8:22–56: God’s power is absolute. Death is not the chief end of persons. Trusting and knowing God is. Luke 8:40-56

The second major section of the Gospel of Luke comes to a conclusion in chapter 9 with the end of the Galilean ministry. Jesus now sends the disciples out with His delegated authority to heal and announce the good news of the kingdom, even though they do not yet fully understand who He is. This issue is dealt with in the rest of the chapter as this preaching mission of Jesus' and His disciples stirs up questions about who He is. Clearly God is working in a new way through Jesus, but the point Luke will make here is that Jesus is much more than a prophet like Elijah or Moses. The feeding of the 5000 demonstrates this graphically as Jesus shows Himself to be the Messiah who can provide for His people. Peter gets this part of the identification as he confesses Jesus to be the Christ, the Son of God. However, Peter still does not fully get it yet, as he rebukes Jesus for bringing up the necessity of suffering and the cross. The rest of the chapter reveals to the disciples that Jesus' path involves suffering, rejection and death before glory and those who choose to follow Him must walk that same path.

The picture is of a Messiah who provides and makes full...the disciples learn that Jesus is the source of provision for their own ministry. They are to model Jesus’ style of ministry as they depend on what he can give them (22:24–27). They are to provide the food for the crowd, and through Jesus they do so. He supplies with abundance, and they are the vessels bearing the provision. Luke 9:1-17

Prophets have abounded through the centuries, but only one is called the Christ, God’s anointed. Peter’s answer highlights Jesus’ uniqueness...Jesus’ uniqueness goes beyond prophetic-teaching categories. Jesus is not the messenger; he is the message. The burden of the rest of Jesus’ ministry is to show how that message will be delivered and who the message bearer is. Luke 9:18-20

Two summary commands are issued: deny oneself and take up the cross (aorist imperatives). These are basic orientations of the disciple. Then the disciple can continually follow (present imperative) Jesus...Someone whose life and reputation in the public sphere were primary would never want to come to Jesus. But if they gave up a life of popular acclaim and acceptance to come to Jesus, they would gain deliverance. Jesus understood that trusting in God means nontrust in self and nonreliance on the security the world offers: Whoever loses his life for me will save it. Luke 9:21-27

This section ends at verse 50 with a confirmation of who Jesus is from the Father Himself at the transfiguration and a command that should be the basic guiding command for all disciples, "Listen to Jesus!" The transfiguration announces that Jesus is the fulfillment of what the Old Testament is saying, but He is also the bringer of a new and better approach to God. The only way to know and do what God wants in this new age is to listen to and follow Jesus. The disciples failure to exorcise the young boy and failure to understand Jesus' prediction of betrayal illustrate this. The disciples also fail to understand that following and serving Jesus is not about gaining status or honor or collecting power and authority. Jesus' kingdom will be inclusive and cooperative and will reach out to those who have no status (children) or official position.

The transfiguration was confirming testimony to the glory of Christ, and the resurrection was the crowning endorsement. Revealed in light, he is the light. With the “exodus” came understanding—but only after much listening. When we are with Jesus, we experience the cloud of glory, if we have ears to hear. Luke 9:28-36

The transfiguration called the disciples to listen to Jesus. The miracle that follows explains why this call was issued. The disciples’ failure to heal a possessed boy indicates their failure to trust. The contrast between Jesus’ glorious power and the disciples’ impotence is significant. Jesus’ authority can be trusted, but disciples acting on their own are useless...Instincts fail the disciples; they must listen to Jesus. Luke 9:37-45

Jesus defines greatness without using explicit comparison to anyone else, as people often measure greatness. Greatness is found in an attitude, humility; it does not require someone else’s lack of greatness. All relative scales are removed. Greatness has only one mirror, the reflective eyes of God. He sees greatness in those who do not need to be great to have stature. Luke 9:46-50